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DBQ ESSAY: STEPPING TOWARD LIFE GOALS
THE ROLE, RESPONSIBILITY AND REALITY OF PARENTING


Learning Experience by Carol Nochajski, Alden High School, Alden NY School District Member of the New York State Academy for Teaching and Learning

1. LEARNING CONTEXT
The purpose of the learning experience is to assess the safety factors in the home and to promote the personal health of the occupants by improving their environment so it is safer.

Guiding Questions:

  • How do adult choices in meeting the physical, intellectual, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of a child affect the child’s health and safety?

  • What are age appropriate ways of meeting a child’s health and safety needs for each dimension of health?

  • How can a student make their home safer for a young child?

  • What can a student learn from this experience that they can use in the future?

 

Context:
This learning experience, “Safety in the Home” took place in the Bronx, in a 12th grade Health class during the Fall 2000 semester as an experiment in preparation for the school’s future parenting course.

The activities guide the decision of the student to explore the environment, predict the consequences of the safety hazards, and correct the hazards in an effort to make a safer environment for a child.

2. PROCEDURE

  1. Students complete Do Now worksheet upon entering the room.

  2. The teacher collects the Do Now and introduces the lesson as part of the unit in Parenting on care of the toddler.

    Teacher: Toddlers learn with their whole bodies - not just their heads. They learn more through their hands than they do through their ears. Toddlers solve problems on a physical level.

    Teacher: How should an adult create a home that is safe for toddlers?

    Student Responses:
    1. structure the environment
    2. expect toddlers to test limits
    3. stay out of power struggles
    4. direct behavior gently, but physically
    5. expect sensorimotor behavior
    6. limit groups to eating or an activity like music or a story
    7. share, wait, and use kind words to solve problems
    8. help toddlers talk through problems
    9. expect difficult behavior
    10. deal in realistic terms
    11. let toddlers be toddlers
    12. cover all electrical outlets
    13. protect stairs with a gate
    14. store cleaning supplies safely

    In light of what we have discussed, the teacher proceeds.

  3. Each student is given a packet consisting of nine pages which they are to read and on some pages, complete. The teacher explains each of their tasks as the students get to them. See sequential plan for details.

  4. As the assignments shift from one to another, the teacher confers with the individual students.

  5. During the project phase, the students are in small groups. The teacher walks around the room, conferencing with the groups.

  6. After the projects are finished, the students complete their evaluations together in their small group.

  7. All of the groups hand in their projects at the end of the period, day two.

  8. On day three, teacher and students debrief Evaluation worksheet, complete Reflection Connection, and review Scored products.


3. INSTRUCTIONAL/ENVIRONMENTAL MODIFICATIONS

  • The teacher supplies all the materials for the various product choices. These materials, such as art supplies and cassette tape and recorder, were available in the classroom at the start of day two.

  • The students who wrote and recorded the commercial, had to do their rehearsing and recording in an adjacent classroom since they needed a quiet room. Another teacher was within seeing and hearing range.

  • When the students took home their parental permission slips, many of their parents did not speak or read English. The letters are translated into Spanish for them. Attached are copies of both letters.


4. TIME REQUIRED

Planning and preparation for teacher:

  • Lesson for day one, writing and copying of all sheets for folders, and gathering all supplies for the project (4 hours).

Planning and preparation for student:

  • In class (2 periods) and at home (1 hour).

  • Assessment included grading the project, evaluations, reflections, teacher conferences in class, and writing the project rubric (4 hours).


5. RESOURCES

  • The “do now” activity was not available in any textbooks. The picture of the kitchen safety hazards was drawn by a student in one of the groups.

  • Art supplies and audio equipment need to be available during class time.


6. ASSESSMENT PLAN

The students submitted their finished projects, worksheets and graphic organizers, and reflection sheets which summarized and documented their learning experience. See sequential plan for details.

The teacher’s product rubric was used in assessing the work. I am attaching a blank scoring chart, which was used to tabulate the scores. The Do Now, Safety T-chart, and Homework when completed, can accumulate 36 points. The Do Now is worth 10 points. The Safety T-Chart is worth 14 points. The Homework chart is worth 12 points. The project, evaluation, and reflection sheets when combined, are worth 64 points on the rubric.

The students helped with the rubric. I copied the rubric on a transparency. The students, in groups, commented on the language in the rubric. Since a rubric was a new tool for them, there were more comments on what is a rubric than on the actual words and relationship to their scores.


7. STUDENT WORK

Since many of my students are Hispanic, one of the groups chose to do a safety pamphlet in English and in Spanish. They were not instructed to do this; they simply took the initiative on their own. This is commendable since it involved extra work for them.


   

STUDENT PACKET
SAFETY IN THE HOME

 



KITCHEN SAFETY



SAFETY CHART
TOPIC: SAFETY IN THE HOME

The situations that are listed below could result in a dangerous accident for a toddler. Read each situation and explain how each accident can be prevented

Dangerous Situation

Ways to Prevent a Possible Accident

1. the electric cord of toaster hanging over the sink

 
2. knives piled on a counter or table  

3. a bucket of water with a puddle around it

 

4. cleaning products under the sink with the cabinet door open

 

5. an open door that leads to steps to a basement

 

6. a lit cigarette in an ashtray on the edge of a table

 

7. a pot on the stove with the handle turned out or away from the stove

 
8. a trash can near a gas oven  
9. a bottle of open medicine on a table  
10. toys all over the floor  

Extra Credit:
Add two more dangerous situations that you know exist in your home and how could they cause an accident

11.  
12.  



HOMEWORK CHART
Homework: Is Your Home Safe For A Child?

DIRECTIONS: Allow at least 30 minutes for this simulation.

You have been transformed into a 10 month-old-baby. You are alert and curious. You are able to crawl quite well. You can also pull yourself to a standing position and move around with the support of furniture. Standing, you are about 28 inches tall.

Everything you see is new and wonderful. You love to grab things and put them into your mouth to explore them better. You are also teething, so it feels good to chew on whatever is at hand. You like to bang things, and have learned how to let go of things by throwing them.

YOUR ASSIGNMENT:

This is to be completed in a crawling position. Begin in the living room or living area of your home. As you crawl around the room, use your grown-up eyes to spot the potential dangers that you as a baby, might encounter. Also look for objects you might accidentally destroy. From the living room, crawl to your kitchen, bedroom, and bathroom. As you continue to explore, list the danger spots you find on the chart below.

ROOM SAFETY HAZARD POTENTIAL PROBLEM WAY TO CORRECT THE SAFET HAZARD

LIVING ROOM OR LIVING AREA

     

KITCHEN


     

BEDROOM

     

BATHROOM


     

Topic: Safety in the Home

ASSIGNMENT: In groups, you are to choose one of the following assignments. These are to be completed during this period and will be collected and then evaluated. Remember to relate to the safety of a toddler in the home.

  1. 1. Create a brochure on safety, including artwork.
    ex: Safety Tips For Parents

  2. 2. Create a poster on safety in the house.

  3. 3. Write a radio commercial on child safety. Record the commercial on the cassette recorder in class.

DIRECTIONS:

  1. 1. List all members of your group on a separate sheet of paper to be attached to your finished product.

  2. 2. List the procedure that was used in completing the assignment.

  3. 3. Complete the evaluation form.

NOTE: The brochures may be reproduced to be used in Parenting classes. The posters may be displayed in the LYFE center. The commercial may be played on the PA system during the morning section announcements.


KITCHEN SAFETY REFLECTION





EVALUATION

As a group fill in the boxes by commenting about today’s assignment.

Names of students in our group:


Our Project product was:




We think that:




We’ll find out that:




We found out that:




Conclusions:




PARENT LETTERS
English and Spanish

Date:

Dear Parent or Guardian:

The State Education Department is producing teacher resource guides supporting the learning standards approved by the Board of Regents for all students.

These guides include a collection of “best instructional practices” which promote student attainment of learning standards in the area of Parenting.

I have designed a learning activity that is geared to these higher standards. This lesson, along with samples of student work related to the lesson, is being submitted to the State Education Department for possible inclusion in the State’s curriculum resource guides for 2001.

I ask that you complete and sign the form below to allow the State Education Department to publish your child’s work, should it be selected, for purposes of teacher training and public education. The work would appear without the student’s name or other identifying information. Please return the form below with your son/daughter.

Thank you for your assistance in this important project.

Sincerely,

Jewel Faerber
Health teacher

***********************************************************************************************************************
I give my permission for the State Education Department to use the work of
(Student) ________________________ with educators and the public for the purposes of teacher training and public education with the understanding that the student’s name and other identifiable information will not be disclosed.

___________ _________________________________ ______________________
Date Signature Relationship to student

 


Estimados Padres:

El departamento de educacuión del estado esta creando recursos para maestros con el proposito de apoyar las estatisticas aprobadas por la junta directiva para todo estudiante.

Estos recursos incluyen las mejores practicas para el aprendizaje la cual promociona al estudiante para que aprendan las estatisticas en el area de la enseñanza.

Yo he designado un programa de aprendizaje usando las estatisticas. Este programa junto a trabajos de estudiantes relacionado con la leccion han sido sometidos a la junta directiva del estado para posibilidades de ser incluidas en las guias de estudios para el año 2001.

Les pido que contesten y firmen el formulario para que la junta educativa del estado permita que el trabajo de su hijo(a) se editado y seleccionado para objectivo de preparacion de maestros y la educacion publica. El trabajo aparecera sin identificacion. El nombre o cualquier otra identificacion no sera revelada.

Favor de devolver el formulario con su hijo(a).

Gracias por su cooperacion en este proyecto.

Sinceramente,

Jewel Faerber
Health Teacher

***********************************************************************************************************************
Autorizo a la junta educativa del estado para usar el trabajo de ____________________________ junto al educador con el objetivo de preparar a (nombre del estudiante) maestros y a la educacion publica. Siempre y cuando la identificaccion de mi hijo(a) no sea revelada.

___________ _________________________________ ______________________
Fecha Firma Felaccion con el estudiante


PRODUCT RUBRIC

DIMENSION PROFESSIONAL 4 SEMI-PROFESSIONAL 3 AMATEUR 2 NOVICE 1 SCORE

Graphic
Organizers

H1B
H1D
H2A
H2C
FCS2A
FCS2D
CDOS3a.2A
ELA1.1D

Gathers, assesses and synthesizes evidence to support toddler safety in the home.

Shows meaningful awareness of thinking making distinctions about the relative value and significance of specific data, facts, and ideas.

Gathers, assesses and synthesizes evidence to support toddler safety in the home.

Supplies information sufficiently making distinctions about the relative value and significance of specific data, facts, and ideas.

Insufficient evidence to support toddler safety in the home.

Shows little awareness of thinking.

Insufficient evidence. Supports safety in general.

Shows no awareness of thinking.

______x 4

Health Skills
H1B
H1D
H2A
H2C
FCS2A
FCS2D
CDOS3a.2A

Personalizes risk to toddlers in own home with elaborate detail.

Predicts and determines consequences of personal decisions concerning safe conditions in the home with accuracy.

Personalizes risk to toddlers in own home.

Predicts and determines consequences of personal decisions concerning safe conditions in the home with accuracy.

Information presented shows risks in toddler but without references to own home.

Prediction of consequences are not logical.

Information presented is generalized with no reference to toddlers.

Prediction of consequences are not logical and are inaccurate

______x 3

Product
H1B
H1D
H2A
H2C
FCS2A
FCS2D
CDOS3a.2A


Professional and original art work or performance.

Adapts health message to parent audience.

Promotes healthy development for a toddler.

Recognizes hazardous conditions in the home and proposes solutions to reduce or eliminate them.

Original art work or performance.

Adapts health message to parent audience.

Promotes healthy development for a toddler.

Recognizes hazardous conditions in the home and proposes solutions to reduce or eliminate them.

Art work or performance is very similar to a pre-existing work. and/or

Target audience for health message is unclear. and

Promotes healthy development for a toddler.

Recognizes hazardous conditions in the home and proposes solutions that may or may not reduce or eliminate them.

Art work or performance is very similar to a pre-existing work. and/or

Target audience for health message is unclear. and/or

Promotion of healthy development is not connected to toddler safety.

Hazardous conditions recognized are limited and solutions do not effectively reduce or eliminate them.

_______x 3

Evaluation
H1B
H1D
H2A
H2C
FCS2A
FCS2D
CDOS3a.2A

Recognizes that personal decisions and behavior affect the quality of safety in the environment, and the health of toddlers.

Demonstrates problem solving ability with insight and elaboration.

Recognizes that personal decisions and behavior affect the quality of safety in the environment, and the health of toddlers.

Demonstrates problem solving ability.

Recognizes that personal decisions and behavior affect the quality of safety in the environment, and the health of individuals in general without reference to toddlers.

Problem solving ability and conclusions do not follow logically.

Connection between personal decisions and behavior affecting the quality of safety is not evident.

. Problem solving ability and conclusions do not follow logically.

______x 3

Reflection
H2A
ELA1.2B

Responds to questions insightfully with answers supported with strong, accurate evidence.
Responds to questions clearly supported with accurate evidence.
Digresses from questions and/or responds with limited or sometimes inaccurate evidence.
Does not respond and/or gives inaccurate evidence.

______x 3
TOTAL__________


SCORING CHART

DO NOW SAFETY CHART HOMEWORK
CHART
PRODUCT RUBRIC TOTAL POINTS

HIGHEST
POINTS POSSIBLE

10 14 12 64 100

STUDENT
SCORE



8. TEACHER REFLECTION

When I developed the lesson on safety, I created it to be an integral part of the parenting lessons geared to caring for a toddler. I never expected the amount of enthusiasm that I was shown in class. I expected negative comments since my Health class was on the topic of safety in general, not safety concerning young children. They were thrilled to digress from the curriculum. After two days, they begged to continue the assignment. Next year when I teach the Parenting course, I will definitely spend more time on this topic. In the students’ evaluations, some of them commented that they would have liked more time for this experience.

Students absent on day 2 are given an alternative assignment. All projects and worksheets remain in the classroom with the exception of the Homework.

I believe that by next year the finished work will improve after I change the assignments. The homework simulation should be given over a weekend so the students have more time to explore as toddlers. This would also give them additional time to complete the Homework chart. Also, I would tell them about the projects further in advance. Then they could decide on their projects and write an outline of what they expect to accomplish in the completed project.

Another strategy to be considered is to divide the group work so that students can be more productive in a short period of time. Each group could have one person to facilitate the discussion about day 1 & 2 reflections and the Evaluation worksheet day 3. Another person could act as a recorder.

As a result of the Statewide Peer Review, on the student’s Evaluation chart “Our problem was” should be changed to read “Our project problem was”.

In the future, the Product Rubric could be improved by dividing it into smaller components, based on the work that is involved.

Being a part of this learning experience has shown me a different way of teaching a topic. I had to learn about NYS learning standards and how to assess the work of the students on a whole new level. I must admit that the process was as much fun for me as it was for my students. It was a lot of hard work but to see their joy and genuine pleasure while displaying the finished projects was worth the effort.

When I developed the lesson on safety, I created it to be an integral part of the parenting lessons geared to caring for a toddler. I never expected the amount of enthusiasm that I was shown in class. I expected negative comments since my Health class was on the topic of safety in general, not safety concerning young children. They were thrilled to digress from the curriculum. After two days, they begged to continue the assignment. Next year when I teach the Parenting course, I will definitely spend more time on this topic. In the students’ evaluations, some of them commented that they would have liked more time for this experience.

Students absent on day 2 are given an alternative assignment. All projects and worksheets remain in the classroom with the exception of the Homework.

I believe that by next year the finished work will improve after I change the assignments. The homework simulation should be given over a weekend so the students have more time to explore as toddlers. This would also give them additional time to complete the Homework chart. Also, I would tell them about the projects further in advance. Then they could decide on their projects and write an outline of what they expect to accomplish in the completed project.

Another strategy to be considered is to divide the group work so that students can be more productive in a short period of time. Each group could have one person to facilitate the discussion about day 1 & 2 reflections and the Evaluation worksheet day 3. Another person could act as a recorder.

As a result of the Statewide Peer Review, on the student’s Evaluation chart “Our problem was” should be changed to read “Our project problem was”.

In the future, the Product Rubric could be improved by dividing it into smaller components, based on the work that is involved.

Being a part of this learning experience has shown me a different way of teaching a topic. I had to learn about NYS learning standards and how to assess the work of the students on a whole new level. I must admit that the process was as much fun for me as it was for my students. It was a lot of hard work but to see their joy and genuine pleasure while displaying the finished projects was worth the effort.


SEQUENTIAL PLAN OF INSTRUCTION TEMPLATE

Parenting Standard(s): II

Grade: 11-12

Discipline: Health

Essential Question (s):
How do adult choices in meeting the physical, intellectual, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of a child affect the child’s health and safety?

# of lessons: 3

Length of periods: 42 min.


LESSON COMPONENTS DAY 1 DAY 2 DAY 3
Guiding Question(s)
II G. What are age appropriate ways of meeting a child’s health and safety needs for each dimension of health?

II G. What are age appropriate ways of meeting a child’s health and safety needs for each dimension of health?

II G. What are age appropriate ways of meeting a child’s health and safety needs for each dimension of health?

Activities
  • Do Now worksheet and collect.
  • Teacher presentation on toddler safety.
  • Safety T-Chart worksheet and collect.
  • Do Now with Reflection worksheet.
  • Assign Homework: Is your home safe for a child? worksheet.
  • Oral reflection
  • Review homework orally.
  • Assign group projects of brochure, poster, or commercial.
  • Create group project.
  • Oral reflection
  • Evaluate projects using:
  • Evaluation worksheet
  • Reflection connection.
  • Product rubric.
Skills Assessed

DM.C.4
DM.C.6
SM.C.6

DM.C.4
DM.C.6
SM.C.6

DM.C.4
DM.C.6
DM.C.9

Learning
Standards &
Performance Indicators

H 2A, 2C,
FCS 2A,2D
CDOS 3a.2A
ELA 1.1C
NH 3.4
NFCS 15.2.1

H 1D, 2A, 2C
FCS 2A,2D
CDOS 3a.2A
ELA 1.2B
NH 3.4
NFCS 15.2.1

H 1B, 1D, 2A, 2C
FCS 2A, 2D
CDOS 3a.2A
ELA 1.2B
NH 3.4
NFCS 15.2

Assessment Tool(s)
  • Do Now
  • Safety T-chart
  • Do Now with reflection
  • Teacher observation
  • Class discussion of reflection
  • Homework
  • Project
  • Teacher observation
  • Class discussion of reflection
  • Evaluation
  • Reflection question
  • Product rubric


Reflection question(s)

Orally students respond to:

  • After today’s lesson, can you spot other safety hazards in the Do Now?
  • Can you use what was discussed in class about safety in your own home?

Orally students respond to:

  • How did you feel about the homework simulation activity?
  • How did it feel to work as a team doing your project?

Written reflection on Reflection Connection:

  • How can you use what you learned these past three days in your future?
  • How ready are you for parenthood?

Standards and Commencement Performance Indicators:

NYS Health
Standard 1: Students will have the necessary knowledge and skills to establish and maintain physical fitness, participate in physical activity, and maintain personal health.

B. Demonstrate the necessary knowledge and skills to promote healthy development into adulthood
D. Evaluate how the multiple influences which affect health decisions and behaviors can be altered.

Standard 2: Students will acquire the knowledge and ability necessary to create and maintain a safe and healthy environment.

A. Recognize hazardous conditions in the home, school, work place, and community and propose solutions to eliminate or reduce them.
C. Recognize how individual behavior affects the quality of the environment.

NYS Family and Consumer Sciences
Standard 2: Students will acquire the knowledge and ability necessary to create and maintain a safe and healthy environment.

A. Understand the stages of child development and apply this knowledge to activities designed to enrich the physical, social, mental, and emotional development of a young child.
B. Apply basic rules of health and safety to a variety of home and work place situations.

NYS Career Development and Occupational Studies
Standard 3a: Students will demonstrate mastery of the foundation skills and competencies essential for success in the workplace.

2A. Use ideas and information to make decisions and solve problems related to accomplishing a task.

NYS English Language Arts
Standard 1: Students will read, write, listen, and speak for information and understanding.

1.1C Use a combination of techniques (e.g., previewing, use of advance organizers, structural cues) to extract salient information from texts.
1.2B Present a controlling idea that conveys an individual perspective and insight into the topic.


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